Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Discussions in the vein that would most interest those looking for the "meat and potatoes" of Townsend Brown's scientific work.

Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby nate » Sun Sep 17, 2017 11:58 pm

https://www.apnews.com/697536f065e6470eaa5ccfc35061e7ce

WASHINGTON (AP) — The blaring, grinding noise jolted the American diplomat from his bed in a Havana hotel. He moved just a few feet, and there was silence. He climbed back into bed. Inexplicably, the agonizing sound hit him again. It was as if he’d walked through some invisible wall cutting straight through his room.

Soon came the hearing loss, and the speech problems, symptoms both similar and altogether different from others among at least 21 U.S. victims in an astonishing international mystery still unfolding in Cuba. The top U.S. diplomat has called them “health attacks.” New details learned by The Associated Press indicate at least some of the incidents were confined to specific rooms or even parts of rooms with laser-like specificity, baffling U.S. officials who say the facts and the physics don’t add up.

“None of this has a reasonable explanation,” said Fulton Armstrong, a former CIA official who served in Havana long before America re-opened an embassy there. “It’s just mystery after mystery after mystery.”

Suspicion initially focused on a sonic weapon, and on the Cubans. Yet the diagnosis of mild brain injury, considered unlikely to result from sound, has confounded the FBI, the State Department and U.S. intelligence agencies involved in the investigation.
But on inspection of the dust
I came upon this thing called 'trust'
It helps
us to adjust
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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby Griffin » Tue Sep 19, 2017 1:29 am

Hi Nate,

Brings to mind San Antonio, TTB and an earthquake. Also reminds of Doctor Puharich. He was quite critical of both the KGB and CIA for mind manipulation and warfare. It may seem sensationalistic to jump to that conclusion, but that possibility cannot be ignored. I met Doctor Puharich in Santa Monica in connection with a book I later put aside on TTB’s advice. Puharich frankly said that he was distrustful of writers (which he was himself) due to their proclivity to sensationalize. This was amusing , though I didn’t laugh. He was harshly accused of that himself, especially in his tale of high strangeness he relates in his book Uri: A Journal of the Mystery of Uri Geller. In fact though, Puharich was a courageous and most scrupulous researcher and recorder.

Puharich was interested in finally confirming who the primary source for further communications from “M” was. That person, my primary source at that time, undeniably continued, without physical interaction of any kind, the “M” messaging initiated through Doctor Vinod of India. An interesting alchemical/spiritual kind of coding I found was also of interest. That is the safest, most trustworthy emphasis anyway. TTB was well aware of all the negative, nasty elements in play. But he chose to focus on the incredible positive dimensions. They eventually prevail, especially in this new unfolding cyclic world age. It may be hard to credit this, but it’s true.

Keep digging and looking upward, too.

As ever,

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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Wed Sep 20, 2017 7:28 pm

Researchers develop solid-state, free-standing carbon nanofiber supercapacitor

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Drexel researchers have developed a solid-state, free-standing electrode that can make energy storage devices safer by eliminating their flammable electrolyte solution. The electrode uses a carbon fiber mat, made by the process of electrospinning shown here. Credit: Drexel University

A group of Drexel University researchers have created a fabric-like material electrode that could help make energy storage devices—batteries and supercapacitors—faster and less susceptible to leaks or disastrous meltdowns. Their design for a new supercapacitor, which looks something like a furry sponge infused with gelatin, offers a unique alternative to the flammable electrolyte solution that is a common component in these devices.

The electrolyte fluid inside both batteries and supercapacitors can be corrosive or toxic and is almost always flammable. To keep up with our advancing mobile technology, energy storage devices have been subject to material shrinking in the design process, which has left them vulnerable to short circuiting—as in recent cases with Samsung's Galaxy Note devices—which, when compounded with the presence of a flammable electrolyte liquid, can create an explosive situation.
So instead of a flammable electrolyte solution, the device designed by Vibha Kalra, PhD, a professor in Drexel's College of Engineering, and her team, used a thick ion-rich gel electrolyte absorbed in a freestanding mat of porous carbon nanofibers to produce a liquid-free device. The group, which included Kalra's doctoral assistant Sila Simotwo and Temple researchers Stephanie L.Wunder, PhD, and Parameswara Chinnam, PhD, recently published its new design for a "solvent-free solid-state supercapacitor" in the American Chemical Society journal Applied Materials and Interfaces.

"We have completely eliminated the component that can catch fire in these devices," Kalra said. "And, in doing so, we have also created an electrode that could enable energy storage devices to become lighter and better."

Supercapacitors are another type of energy storage device. They're similar to batteries, in that they electrostatically hold and release energy, but in our technology—mobile devices, laptops, electric cars—they tend to serve as a power backup because they can disburse their stored energy in a quick spurt, unlike batteries that do so over long period of use. But, like batteries, supercapacitors use a flammable electrolyte solution, as a result they're vulnerable to leakage and fires.

Not only is the group's supercapacitor solvent-free—which means it does not contain flammable liquid—but the compact design is also more durable and its energy storage capacity and charge-discharge lifespan are better than comparable devices currently being used. It is also able to operate at temperatures as high as 300 degrees Celsius, which means it would make mobile devices much more durable and less likely to become a fire hazard due to abuse.

"To allow industrially relevant electrode thickness and loading, we have developed a cloth-like electrode composed of nanofibers that provides a well-defined three-dimensional open pore structure for easy infusion of the solid electrolyte precursor," Kalra said. "The open-pore electrode is also free of binding agents that act as insulators and diminish performance."

The key to producing this durable device is a fiber-like electrode framework that the team created using a process called electrospinning. The process deposits a carbon precursor polymer solution in the form of a fibrous mat by extruding it through a rotating electric field—a process that, at the microscopic level, looks something like making cotton candy.

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This carbon nanofiber electrode, when coated with ionogel, can eliminate the need for a flammable electrolyte solution in energy storage devices -- making them safer to use. Credit: Drexel University

The ionogel is then absorbed in the carbon fiber mat to create a complete electrode-electrolyte network. Its excellent performance characteristics are also tied to this unique way of combining electrode and electrolyte solutions. This is because they are making contact over a larger surface area.

If you think of an energy storage device as a bowl of corn flakes, then the place where energy storage happens is roughly where the flakes meet the milk—scientists call this the "electrical double layer." It's where the conductive electrode that stores electricity meets the electrolyte solution that is carrying the electric charge. Ideally, in your cereal bowl, the milk would make its way through all the flakes to get just the right coating on each—not too crunchy and not too soggy. But sometimes the cereal gets piled up and the milk—or the electrolyte solution, in the case of our comparison—doesn't make it all the way through, so the flakes on top are dry, while the flakes on the bottom are saturated. This isn't a good bowl of cereal, and its electrochemical equivalent—an electron traffic jam en route to activation sites in the electrode—is not ideal for energy storage.

Kalra's solid-state supercapacitor is like putting shredded wheat in the bowl, instead of cornflakes. The open architecture lets the milk permeate and coat the cereal, much like the ionogel permeates the carbon fiber mat in Kalra's solid-state supercapacitor. The mat provides a greater surface area for ions from the ionogel to access the electrode, which increases the capacity and improves the performance of the energy storage device. It also eliminates the need for many of the scaffolding materials that are essential parts of forming the physical electrode, but don't play a role in the energy storage process and contribute a good bit to the device's overall weight.

"State of the art electrodes are composed of fine powders that need to be blended with binding agents and made into a slurry, which is then applied into the device. These binders add dead weight to the device, as they are not conductive materials, and they actually hinder its performance," Kalra said. "Our electrodes are freestanding, thus eliminating the need for binders, whose processing can account for as much as 20 percent of the cost of manufacturing an electrode."
The next step for Kalra's group will be applying this technique to the production of solid-state batteries as well as exploring its application for smart fabrics.

https://phys.org/news/2017-09-solid-sta ... citor.html
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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Fri Sep 22, 2017 1:15 pm

The Lunar Space Elevator, a Near Term Means to Reduce Cost of Lunar Access
Charles F. Radley, Florida Space Development Council
AIAA SPACE and Astronautics Forum and Exposition Orlando, FL

The Lunar Space Elevator, a Near Term Means to Reduce
Cost of Lunar Access

Charles F Radley1
Leeward Space Foundation, Inc., Palm Bay, Florida, 32907

A Lunar Space Elevator [LSE] can be built today from existing commercial polymers;
manufactured, launched and deployed for less than $2B. A prototype weighing 48 tons with
100 kg payload can be launched by 3 Falcon-Heavy's, and will pay for itself in 53 sample
return cycles within one month. It reduces the cost of soft landing on the Moon at least
threefold, and sample return cost at least ninefold. Many benefits would arise. A near side
LSE can enable valuable science mission, as well as mine valuable resources and ship to
market in cislunar space, LEO and Earth’s surface. A far-side LSE can facilitate
construction and operation of a super sensitive radio astronomy facility shielded from
terrestrial interference by the Moon. The LSE would facilitate substantial acceleration of
human expansion beyond LEO.



Download full report PDF here: https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2017-5372
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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Thu Sep 28, 2017 2:23 pm

The first computer that I ever worked on and programed was a CDC 1600.

Physics Today

Today is the birthday of electrical engineer and supercomputer pioneer Seymour Cray. He was born in 1925 in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. After attending the University of Minnesota, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering in 1950 and a master’s in mathematics in 1951, Cray went to work for Engineering Research Associates in St Paul, Minnesota. When the scientific computing division was phased out in 1957, Cray left with several other employees to form Control Data Corp (CDC), where he concentrated on building large scientific computers and simplifying their design. Cray served as the primary engineer on the innovative CDC 1604. Introduced in 1959, it was the world’s fastest computer at the time and one of the first to use transistors rather than vacuum tubes. Cray went on to design the world’s first supercomputer—the CDC 6600—in 1964. The CDC 6600 was also the first commercial computer to use a cathode-ray-tube (CRT) console. In 1972 Cray left CDC to found his own company, Cray Research, which became the leading manufacturer of supercomputers, such as the Cray 1 developed in 1976. The Cray 1’s innovations included vector processing and integrated circuits. Cray continued over the next two decades to pursue ultra-high-speed supercomputing technologies and founded two more companies, Cray Computer Corp in 1989 and SRC Computers in 1996, both in Colorado Springs. He died at age 71 in 1996, from injuries sustained in a car crash. Cray was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1997. (Photo credit: Michael Hicks, CC BY 2.0)

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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Fri Sep 29, 2017 1:30 pm

Physics Today

Happy 85th birthday Rainer Weiss! The award-winning physicist conceived of using interferometry to detect gravitational waves and cofounded the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO. Weiss, who was born in Berlin, immigrated with his family to New York in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution. With a gift for tinkering and an intense interest in electronics, Weiss enrolled in electrical engineering at MIT. He soon found that physics was a better fit, but he ended up dropping out during his junior year. Nevertheless, he found employment as a technician at MIT’s Building 20 under Jerrold Zacharias, who persuaded him to return to his studies. Weiss finished his bachelor’s degree in 1955 and went on to earn his PhD in 1962. After a postdoc at Princeton University working under Robert Dicke, Weiss returned to MIT as an assistant professor of physics in 1964. While preparing to teach a class on general relativity in 1967, he thought of detecting gravitational waves by measuring the travel time of light between freely floating masses. In the ensuing decades Weiss would work with Kip Thorne and Ronald Drever to lead the development of LIGO. By the 1970s Weiss had also become a leader launching weather balloons to study the newly discovered cosmic microwave background (CMB). In 1976 he joined the scientific working group for NASA’s Cosmic Background Explorer satellite, which launched in 1989. Discoveries regarding the CMB’s thermal spectrum and its fluctuations netted two of the principals on the project, John Mather and George Smoot, the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics—which some physicists believe should have included Weiss. Now, since LIGO’s first direct detection of gravitational waves in September 2015, Weiss—currently professor of physics emeritus at MIT—may again be a contender for the Nobel. (Photo credit: Bryce Vickmark)

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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Mon Oct 02, 2017 12:06 pm

NASA History

Robert Goddard, recognized as the father of American rocketry, filed for the first of his 214 patents for a “rocket apparatus” on this day (#OTD), October 1, in 1913.
Dr. Goddard's accomplishments include development and flight of the first liquid-fueled rocket, as well as forward-thinking theoretical research into the possibility of sending a rocket to the Moon. Goddard was ridiculed by the New York Times for this research. They noted that rockets could not operate in the vacuum of outer space, since they would have nothing to push against. The Times eventually issued a correction - after the launch of Apollo 11 in 1969.
In recognition of his contributions to rocketry, NASA's space flight center in Greenbelt, Maryland is named in Dr. Goddard's honor.
Below is one of Goddard's drawings, submitted as part of his patent proposal.

Learn more: http://go.nasa.gov/2yh2x2x

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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Mon Oct 02, 2017 12:53 pm

New insights on dark energy

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A representation of the evolution of the universe over 13.8 billion years. Different methods of studying cosmic expansion yield slightly different results, including for the age of the universe. Astronomers have calculated that these discrepancies could be reconciled if the dark energy that drives cosmic acceleration were not constant in time. Credit: NASA and the WMAP consortium

The universe is not only expanding - it is accelerating outward, driven by what is commonly referred to as "dark energy." The term is a poetic analogy to label for dark matter, the mysterious material that dominates the matter in the universe and that really is dark because it does not radiate light (it reveals itself via its gravitational influence on galaxies). Two explanations are commonly advanced to explain dark energy. The first, as Einstein once speculated, is that gravity itself causes objects to repel one another when they are far enough apart (he added this "cosmological constant" term to his equations). The second explanation hypothesizes (based on our current understanding of elementary particle physics) that the vacuum has properties that provide energy to the cosmos for expansion.

For several decades cosmologies have successfully used a relativistic equation with dark matter and dark energy to explain increasingly precise observations about the cosmic microwave background, the cosmological distribution of galaxies, and other large-scale cosmic features. But as the observations have improved, some apparent discrepancies have emerged. One of the most notable is the age of the universe: there is an almost 10% difference between measurements inferred from the Planck satellite data and those from so-called Baryon Acoustic Oscillation experiments. The former relies on far-infrared and submillimeter measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the latter on spatial distribution of visible galaxies.

CfA astronomer Daniel Eisenstein was a member of a large consortium of scientists who suggest that most of the difference between these two methods, which sample different components of the cosmic fabric, could be reconciled if the dark energy were not constant in time. The scientists apply sophisticated statistical techniques to the relevant cosmological datasets and conclude that if the dark energy term varied slightly as the universe expanded (though still subject to other constraints), it could explain the discrepancy. Direct evidence for such a variation would be a dramatic breakthrough, but so far has not been obtained. One of the team's major new experiments, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Survey, could settle the matter. It will map over twenty-five million galaxies in the universe, reaching back to objects only a few billion years after the big bang, and should be completed sometime in the mid 2020's.

https://phys.org/news/2017-10-insights-dark-energy.html
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Re: Interesting websites ( OPEN SUBJECTS)

Postby ecker2011 » Mon Oct 09, 2017 6:47 pm

Viewpoint: Trapped Ions Test Fundamental Particle Physics

Nicholas R. Hutzler, Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

New precision experiments using trapped molecular ions provide an alternative method for determining if the electron has an electric dipole moment.

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Figure 1: The JILA eEDM experiment [1] involves several steps. A sample of HfFHfF molecules are ionized and confined in a cylindrical trap with a rotating electric field, EE, which aligns the molecules (left). Each molecule has a strong internal electric field that can—if an eEDM exists—affect the spin precession of electrons around the molecule (middle). In the last step, a laser dissociates the molecules—depending on their precession angle—and an ion counter records the number of resulting Hf+Hf+ions.

It is surprising that science cannot explain how matter was created after the big bang. All known physical processes leave the Universe with essentially equal amounts of matter and antimatter, so why is everything made of matter? This baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) is one of the biggest mysteries facing modern physics and a driving force behind a wide range of efforts probing the frontier of particle physics. A new measurement from JILA in Colorado by the group led by Eric Cornell [1] explores this frontier with a tabletop system that uses trapped molecular ions to look for fundamental symmetry violations. The researchers specifically searched for the signature of an electric dipole moment in the electron. No signature was found, thus confirming previous experiments while at the same time constraining symmetry-breaking theories. The work demonstrates a novel and exciting approach to searching for new physics with precision measurements.

In 1967, Andrei Sakharov [2] studied the specific requirements for the existence of the BAU and found that a seemingly unrelated symmetry called time-reversal symmetry ( TT) must be violated for matter to dominate antimatter. This realization has far-reaching experimental implications because signatures of TT-violating physics can show up in a variety of seemingly unrelated places. For example, TT-violating processes would cause fundamental particles such as electrons to have an electric dipole moment (EDM), which can be imagined classically as an uneven distribution of charge inside the particle. Since this charge imbalance can arise only from TT-violating processes, and since TT violation commonly appears in models for new physics such as supersymmetry, searches for EDMs of fundamental particles are manifestly searches for new physics at high energies [3, 4].

One could search for an electron EDM, or eEDM, by placing an electron in an electric field, which would induce a torque on the particle if it has a dipole. This torque would be revealed in a precession, or wobbling, of the electron’s spin angular momentum. However, the internal electric fields inside some polar molecules are around a million times stronger than the external fields created in the lab [5]. Therefore, an experimentally superior approach is to select a heavy, polar molecule—heavy because the electrons should be moving relativistically—and search for a spin-precession signature in one of the outer (or valence) electrons. A common realization of such a measurement is to send a beam of neutral molecules through a vacuum chamber and probe the molecules spectroscopically with lasers or microwaves. The current best limit on the eEDM [6] and the previous few best limits [7] followed this general approach. However, molecular-beam experiments have a limitation—beams move, and eventually the molecules will leave the apparatus. Even fancy tricks like cryogenically cooling the molecules result in an observation time of just a few milliseconds, which means large numbers of molecules must be measured to build up an eEDM signal.

The JILA EDM experiment completely obliterates this limitation by trapping the molecules, increasing the observation time by a hundredfold, and therefore realizing a hundredfold increase in sensitivity per molecule. They start by using an ultraviolet laser to rip an electron from their molecule of choice, hafnium fluoride ( HfFHfF). The resulting HfF+HfF+ ions are then trapped in rotating electric fields inside an ultrahigh vacuum chamber (Fig. 1). Since the electrostatic force is so strong, the ions are stuck rotating around the center of the ion trap, leaving plenty of time to perform an extremely precise measurement.

The team uses lasers to place the ionized molecules in a particular state in which the outermost electron has its spin pointing in a particular direction relative to the internal electric field of the molecule. After this state preparation, the experimenters allow the spins to precess freely for about one second. The rate of precession is controlled by several effects, including the presumed interaction of the eEDM with the molecule’s electric field. At the end of the precession time, the researchers dissociate the molecules into atoms with a laser that can select a particular spin orientation. The atomic ions are then detected with an ion counter, yielding a measurement of the total precession angle, which is the experimental quantity of interest. Thanks to the relatively long trapping time, the precession angle is larger (and thus easier to measure) than in the previous experiments, which used molecular beams.

In a given experimental configuration, the precession angle depends on the eEDM along with a much larger collection of other contributions that are not necessarily of fundamental interest. The measurement is therefore repeated but with some experimental parameter reversed, for example, the orientation of the molecules relative to the ion trap fields. This parameter reversal would change the sign of the eEDM contribution to the precession angle, while not affecting other contributions. The measurement is then repeated again with some other parameter flipped, and so on. By measuring all possible combinations of nearly every experimental parameter, the experimenters isolate the eEDM signal from anything else. This isolation is robust enough to suppress systematic errors and uncertainties to a level that’s below the uncertainty from finite statistics. In other words, with more ions and more data taking, the experiment can achieve higher sensitivity.

The JILA experiment did not see a signal of an eEDM, allowing them to set a limit that the eEDM must be no larger than about 10−28e10−28e cm (where ee is the charge of one electron). This means that their experiment is sensitive to new physics at the few TeV scale, beyond even the reach of the LHC for TT-violating physics that couples to the electron [8, 9]. That is quite impressive for an experiment that would probably fit in the room where you are now sitting.

The JILA limit is within a factor of 2 of the currently lowest limit set by the Advanced Cold Molecule EDM (ACME) experiment a few years ago with a beam of neutral thorium monoxide ( ThOThO) molecules [6]. Because the two experimental approaches are so different, they complement each other by having different sources of possible systematic errors to which the other may not be susceptible. This separateness will be critical in the event of a possible eEDM detection in the future. Both experiments are currently working on improved measurements which should be sensitive to TT-violating physics at energy scales beyond 10 TeV. Regardless of whether the next measurements are null results, these tabletop molecule experiments will continue to push deeper into the frontiers of high-energy physics beyond the standard model.

This research is published in Physical Review Letters.

References
W. B. Cairncross, D. N. Gresh, M. Grau, K. C. Cossel, T. S. Roussy, Y. Ni, Y. Zhou, J. Ye, and E. A. Cornell, “Precision Measurement of the Electron’s Electric Dipole Moment Using Trapped Molecular Ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 153001 (2017).
A. D. Sakharov, “Violation of CP Invariance, С Asymmetry, and Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe,” JETP Lett. 5, 27 (1967).
D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, and A. O. Sushkov, “Probing the Frontiers of Particle Physics with Tabletop-Scale Experiments,” Science 357, 990 (2017).
I. B. Khriplovich and S. K. Lamoreaux, CP Violation Without Strangeness: Electric Dipole Moments of Particles, Atoms, and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997)[Amazon][WorldCat].
P. G. H. Sandars, “The Electric Dipole Moment of an Atom,” Phys. Lett. 14, 194 (1965).
J. Baron et al. (ACME Collaboration), “Order of Magnitude Smaller Limit on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron,” Science 343, 269 (2014).
J. J. Hudson, D. M. Kara, I. J. Smallman, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Improved Measurement of the Shape of the Electron,” Nature 473, 493 (2011).
J. Engel, M. J. Ramsey-Musolf, and U. van Kolck, “Electric Dipole Moments of Nucleons, Nuclei, and Atoms: The Standard Model and Beyond,” Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 71, 21 (2013).
J. L. Feng, “Naturalness and the Status of Supersymmetry,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 63, 351 (2013).

https://physics.aps.org/articles/v10/111
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